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Factors affecting sterilization and disinfection ppt -

Cleaning is a form of decontamination that renders the environmental surface safe to handle or use by removing organic matter, salts, and visible soils, all of which interfere with microbial inactivation. Sterling Sterilization – A to z James AgallocoJames Agalloco Agalloco & Associates Sterilization – A to z Sterilization is a critical process in the pharmaceutical industry for the control of microbial populationsmicrobial populations. Antigens must be recognized as non-self by the biological system. . Concentration & Quantity Of Material. best live chat Introduces the key principles and factors affecting sterilization and An empirical model for optimum disinfection efficiency was developed using Box–Behnken design (BBD). The thoroughness of pre-disinfection cleaning is the most important Sterilization Overview from the CDC Objectives Identify new topics that are included in the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008. Wastewater must be pretreated so it has low turbidity (low suspended solids). History of disinfection. In addition to water, microorganisms usually require the presence of certain elements in the air--gases that they absorb to produce needed nutrients. Radiation and ethylene oxide terminal sterilization are the two most frequently used processes in the medical device industry to render product within the final sterile barrier package free from viable microorganisms. Many factors, such as cost, availability, and ease of implementation, influence the selection of a decontamination method. This is done using a mechanical process to prepare the Physical and Chemical Agents for Microbial Control Sterilization, Disinfection 1 Dr Shyamal Kr Paul Asstt Professor, Microbiology MMC 12/30/13 Dr. Features. This World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) guideline on ‘Endoscope Disinfection’ is intended for use by health providers and professionals who are involved in the use, cleaning, and maintenance of endoscopes, and it aims to support national societies, official bodies, and individual endoscopy departments in developing local standards and protocols for reprocessing endoscopes. txt) or view presentation slides online. ppt), PDF File (. com, find free presentations research about Sterilization Slides PPT Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008 disinfection can nullify or limit the efficacy of the process. 6-12 This guideline presents a pragmatic approach to the judicious selection and proper use of disinfection and sterilization processes; the approach is based on well-designed studies Description of the various methods of sterilization and disinfection and the mechanism of actions of each method. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Microorganisms are destroyed or deactivated, resulting in termination of growth and reproduction. The present study investigated the use of pulsed power technique for disinfection of water under different operating and environmental conditions. Foreignness . NEW YORK STATE MANDATED INFECTION CONTROL COURSE. Factors Affecting Quality of Contamination Factors. Righ choice saves the patients from mortality and morbidity Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. g. Factors affecting the efficacy of sterilization and disinfection There are many factors that can have an effect on sterilization and disinfection, if we understand these factors we will have a better ability to use disinfection and sterilization processes with full awareness. Permission was also granted . 2. This article reviews the key points to consider for the practical application of a cleaning and validation program within a pharmaceutical facility, with a focus on disinfectant selection. Ancient civilization (from 4000 BC) clear water = clean water Slideshow 6594041 by priscilla-boyd Chlorination is a very popular method of water disinfection that has been used for many years. com - id: 42ca57-MTlkZ PPT – Sterilisation and Disinfection PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 119df4-MTZjZ. Ultraviolet (UV) technology has been around for more than 50 years, and its effectiveness has been well documented both scientifically and commercially. Sterilization is a process related to disinfection. Disinfection refers specifically to disease causing micro-organisms. Shyamal Kr Paul, Streilization Sterilization and Disinfection - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Heat treatment can be used for disinfection and sterilization. Chapter 4. Slide 2. FILTRATION It is the method of removal of bacteria from heat labile liquids such as sera and antibiotics solution. STERILIZATION-DISINFECTION and DISINFECTANTS. This article compares popular sterilization methods and discusses their suitability for objects containing electronics. on the cause, transmission, and prevention of infections. There are around 7 factors that will affect the efficacy of disinfection and sterilization. 2013. When microorganisms are not removed from drinking water, drinking water usage will cause people to fall ill. STERILIZATION. Primary and secondary defense mechanisms necessary to maintain homeostasis and responses to real or perceived injury or infection, including the physical and psychological aspects of self-preservation, through coordination efforts of the intact immune, skin, hepatic, hematologic, and renal systems. Unfortunately, standard sterilization techniques are generally impractical for large equipment and for personal protective clothing equipment. Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria. A. This debris can allow microbes to survive the subsequent disinfection or sterilization process, which could then lead to Health care-Associated Infections (HAIs). If the UV Factors which determine chlorine disinfection effectivity: Chlorine concentrations, contact time, temperature, pH, number and types of microorganisms, concentrations of organic matter in the water. Best Practices for Cleaning, Disinfection and Sterilization of Medical Devices. The sterilization technology used for food sterilization has to strike a balance between achieving the desired microbial reductions without affecting any of the sensory characteristics of the food. Awareness of these factors should lead to better use of disinfection and sterilization Sterilization and Disinfection D-r Mitova Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Final concentrations of reactive oxygen species B. Temperature supplier. Provisions for orienting & educating all employees, etc. Biological Agents And Factors Affecting Decontamination Bruce R. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization. Ⅰ. Final concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and Characteristics of Selected Disinfectants R efeRences : Fraise AP, Lambert PA et al. The activity of germicides against microorganisms depends on a number of factors, some of which are intrinsic qualities of the organism, others of which are the chemical and external physical environment. To provide a better quality of disinfection and sterilization, it is important to know the factors that will influence them. The two guidelines provide a framework for best practice management of wastewater and the exemption of reuse schemes from EPA Victoria’s works approval and licensing provisions. Disinfection continues to be part of sterilization practices in any hospital. Compare effectiveness of moist heat (autoclaving, pasteurization) vs . 3-6 Failure to comply with scientifically-based guidelines has led to numerous outbreaks. ppt - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Disinfection = killing, inhibition, or removal of all microbes THAT MAY CAUSE DISEASE by disinfectant; usually on inanimate objects D. Household bleach is typically diluted using 1:50 with water (1000ppm) for surface disinfection. F. Factors Influencing Bioburden. Favero Lectureship – Disinfection and Sterilization: Successes and Failures Ultraviolet Sterilization Technology Ultraviolet disinfection systems are mysterious to many people – how can “light” kill bacteria? But the truth is it can. Device Design. May 21, 2013 Best Practices for Cleaning, Disinfection and Sterilization in All Health . This can make optimal cleaning, high-level disinfection or sterilization View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Sterilization Slides PPT. Cleaning is a physio-chemical process involving a number of factors. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. com www. com 2 Factors Affecting Sterilization or Disinfection AMOUNT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Number of microorganisms Type of microorganisms (resistance levels) The use of ethylene oxide sterilization, rather than high-level disinfection, has been discussed in the literature as one solution for preventing transmission of infection via flexible endoscopes. ABSTRACT UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN FINLAND, Faculty of Science and Forestry M. Sterilization refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc. pdf), Text File (. Nitrogen is one necessary element, as is oxygen. Contains information on how to use chlorine as a disinfectant for municipal wastewater. Sterilization and factors affecting its efficacy Factors affecting Sterilization and its Efficacy Based on risk adjusted classification of hospital instrument for the probability of transmitting infections Spaulding classification we do sterilization for the critical items (that touches sterile body cavity e. Sterilization = destruction or removal of ALL living cells, spores, or viruses C. Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. Describe the microbial death curve. Once the thermal or non-thermal sterilization process is optimized, then this process has to be validated in a commercial facility and implemented. However, during the the water te be recontaminated. Definitions Sterilization Removal or obliteration of all microbial life shapes Heat Ethylene oxide (Gas) Filtration Commercial cleansing Heat required would debase nourishment Heated to execute Clostridium botulinum endospores Non-pathogens may survive, however don\'t develop Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Methods. The activity of disinfection and sterilization against microorganisms is affected by numerous factors, some of which are chemical or external physical environmental factors whilst others are intrinsic qualities of the organism. Method of microbial control based on site of medical procedure ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the four processes of waste water treatment. 2 Physical and chemical properties of common disinfectants and inorganic disinfectant by-products Factors Affecting DBP Formation • Disinfectant applied • Disinfectant dosage and contact time • Type and level of DBP precursors • Disinfection point • pH and water temperature • Residence time in the distribution system Steam Sterilization - A Carefully Monitored Process Dr. The chemical disinfectant and sterilizing agents per-tain to a class named sanitizing agents with antimicrobial action. Disinfection is the decontamination of work surfaces, equipment, biological safety cabinets, and other inanimate objects using  This lesson will discuss the differences between antisepsis, disinfection, and Other factors, such as the type of surface being disinfected, the length of time the   Jun 2, 2019 Disinfection is the elimination of microorganisms, but not they are usually unreliable for sterilization - the destruction of all life forms. ppt / . What is water disinfection? Water disinfection means the removal, deactivation or killing of pathogenic microorganisms. 08/16/16 DISINFECTION 13 Contd. Russell, Hugo & Ayliffe’s Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization , 5th ed. Give examples about suitable sterilization and disinfection method for each item in the field of microbiology. Quizlet Learn. Disinfection of Water Using Pulsed Power Technique: Effect of System Parameters and Kinetic Study to be the most significant factors affecting the disinfection efficiency. There are many microorganisms that require an oxygen-rich environment to survive, but others actually flourish in low-oxygen surroundings. Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008 Factors Affecting Cleaning/HLD • Microorganisms – The larger the number of microbes, the more challenging the cleaning – More time may be needed with the germicide to destroy all of them – Reducing the number of microb es increases the margin of Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Methods. lecture outline. Number and Location of Microorganisms The more amount of microorganisms, the more germicide is needed. Cleaning is the necessary first step of any sterilization or disinfection process. There are a number of factors which influence the antimicrobial action of . Factors that affect the efficacy of both disinfection and sterilization include prior cleaning of the To provide a better quality of disinfection and sterilization, it is important to know the factors that will influence them. Cleaning and disinfection should also extend to equipment. (eds). disinfection processes for both reuse and discharge to surface waters. Define sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, sanitization, biocide, germicide, bacteriostasis, and asepsis. For chemical disinfection of water the following disinfectants can be used: Waterborne diseases · Factors that influence disinfection. Quizlet Live. The role of cleaning is to assure optimal conditions for effective sterilization and, Best Practice Guidelines for Cleaning, Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Authorities - December 2011 | Page 5 of 136 pages The BC Ministry of Health would like to acknowledge the contribution and expertise of the following people in the Physical and Chemical Agents for Microbial Control Sterilization, Disinfection 1 Dr Shyamal Kr Paul Asstt Professor, Microbiology MMC 12/30/13 Dr. 1 This article examines the eight key steps to be followed, in relation to cleaning and disinfection, in helping to keep cleanrooms “clean. It has shown to be effective for killing bacteria and viruses, but not for some protozoan cysts. Heat: Although disinfection is a very high level of cleaning it does eliminate bacterial spores on objects. Control of factors affecting the transmission of infections and communicable diseases. radio frequencies used for telecommunication purposes. Slide 1 Microbiology Sterilization and Disinfection Chapter 12 . Sterilization Methods Sterilization is the highest standard of cleanliness and requires the most commitment in terms of time and effort. Site to be treated. With the concern about trihalomethanes, a carcinogenic disinfection by-product, many communities have become hesitant in the continuation of this process. For this reason, disposable PPE is recommended for use with infectious agents. Model predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental values. Earle Spaulding classified the medical instrument (devices) into three categories based on the device usage and body contact into three classes, critical, semi-critical and non-critical according to the infection risk involved by using it so Dr. dishwashing machines 8 Designing an effective cleaning procedure for medical devices •Critical factors affecting cleaning Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. Degree of immunogenicity depends on the degree of foreignness i. Factors That Affect the Effectiveness of the Disinfection Process . surgical instruments) which is the a process that destroys or eliminates all forms for disinfection and sterilization. Present study investigated the use of pulsed power technique for disinfection of water under different operating and environmental conditions. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of the Reprocessing Procedure . If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. This is different from disinfection, where only organisms that can cause disease are The efficiency of the sterilization process depends on two major factors. ppt proteins-inactivated by organics Sterilization and disinfection. Collection, analysis, and use of data relating to infections in the ASC Factors influencing Immunogenicity. Disinfection is most important in medical applications and can be used in pathogen work as well. Chemical Disinfection. More extensive consideration of  Jun 24, 2011 Here are 10 factors affecting the efficacy of sterilization and their effects, as identified in the CDC's "Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in  Jun 3, 2015 Contents • Historical background • Introduction • Factors Affecting Disinfection • Types of disinfection • Methods Of Disinfection & Sterilization  FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product is  Nov 25, 2017 of action of Disinfectants Factors affecting Disinfection Evaluation of Anti-mi… Formaldehyde in solution is useful for sterilization of certain  Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization properly used, these cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization processes can reduce the risk for  Factors affecting sterilization by heat are: o Nature of heat: Moist heat is more effective than dry heat o Temperature and time: temperature and time are inversely  Efficacy of Disinfection/Sterilization Influencing Factors. Thus the cleaning and disinfection of cleanrooms is an important part of contamination control. " 1. Things affecting contamination include: Time The longer a contaminant contacts an object, the greater the likelihood of permeation and/or degradation. These soils include the following: Duodenoscopes are flexible, lighted tubes that are threaded through the mouth, throat, and stomach into the top of the small intestine (duodenum). Organic and inorganic load present. NYSED-approved 4 contact hour training covers infection prevention, infection control practices and procedures, barriers, PPE, safe environment principles, and preventing transmission of infectious disease to and from healthcare workers. Sunlight is not sporicidal, hence it does not sterilize. Disinfection is a lower grade of sterilization and involves only the destruction of pathogenic organisms in the vegetative (or non-sporing) state; it does not involve the destruction of spores. cleaning and sanitizing 1 cleaning and sanitizing i. ) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media. As per the model, applied voltage, time of treatment and alkalinity were found to be the most significant factors affecting the disinfection efficiency. Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection Author: US EPA, OW, OWM, Water Permits Division Subject: Fact sheet on disinfection, one of the primary mechanisms for the inactivation or destruction of pathogenic organisms. In this paper we will cover some of the factors impacting on cleaning and associated costs. Table 1: disinfection time for several different types of pathogenic microorganisms with chlorinated water, containing a chlorine concentration of 1 Physical Methods of Sterilization. webbertraining. Identify critical factors affecting the efficacy of sterilization. In tropical countries, the sunlight is more effective in killing germs due to combination of ultraviolet rays and heat. pptx), PDF File (. Cleaning of the object. Get the Sterilization and factors affecting its efficacy Factors affecting Sterilization and its Efficacy Based on risk adjusted classification of hospital instrument for the probability of transmitting infections Spaulding classification we do sterilization for the critical items (that touches sterile body cavity e. H. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical . Unit 2, Section IA1, Ways in which Control Agents Affect Bacterial Structures or Functions  Mar 27, 2012 Sterilization is a critical process in the pharmaceutical industry Disinfection – a process that will eliminate . Presentation Summary : Cleaning – the removal of visible soil from the surfaces, joints and lumen of instruments or devices. D. It details methods for the elimination or prevention/control of microbial growth, and features: Sanitation and Disinfection in Control of Diseases on Farm! Sanitation: It is the processes of adopting hygienic measures which nullifies the factors of health deterioration and create conditions to secure health and ensure production of good quality products. Describe the effects of microbial control agents on cellular structures. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of disinfectant and/or sterilizing agents 243 to skin or mucous membranes; do not cause allergic reactions or burning, and present a low level of toxicity (Brasil, 1994). General disinfection guidelines R. The factors that influence cleaning (time, temperature, chemical concentration, and mechanical force), the method of cleaning, and the food Factors affecting performance Several factors affect the perfor-mance of ultraviolet light as a waste-water disinfectant (US EPA, 1999): Effluent clarity. surgical instruments) which is the a process that destroys or eliminates all forms Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization March 3, 2015 by evelyn Leave a comment There are a number of factors that affect the efficacy of germicides against microorganisms. most sonic machines are not reliable for regular use in disinfection or sterilization. The designs of some types of reusable medical devices, endoscopes in particular, have become more complex. sterilization in natural conditions. Harsh chemicals and extreme heat cannot be used on humans, animals, and fragile objects. By killing bacteria suspended in water, sunlight provides natural method of disinfection of water bodies such as tanks and lakes. Sterilization is the only acceptable standard for surgical purposes although disinfection may well be suitable for other purposes. e. Sapulding classify the way of treating such devices either by disinfection or sterilization Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008 [PDF - 948 KB] Inactivation of Bioterrorist Agents. Furthermore, with personnel, sanitization is important in relation to glove hands. 08/16/16 DISINFECTION 12 3. Here are 10 factors affecting the efficacy of sterilization and their effects, as identified in the CDC's "Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities. Type and level of microbial contamination. The phrase "sunlight is the best disinfectant" was popularized in 1913 by United States Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis and later advocates of government transparency. Cords, Ph. They are used during endoscopic retrograde The new edition of this established and highly respected text is THE definitive reference in its field. 37. ” EIGHT KEY STEPS FOR KEEPING A CLEANROOM CLEAN Step 1: Understanding cleaning and disinfection Disinfection. Identify the four CDC category rankings that apply to successfully balanced. Lynne Sehulster, Centers for Disease Control A Webber Training Teleclass Hosted by Paul Webber paul@webbertraining. Sanitation = reduction of microbial populations to levels that are considered safe for Disinfection of Natural Water by Solar Photocatalysis Using Immobilized TiO2 Devices: Efficiency in Eliminating Indicator Bacteria and Operating Life of the System Course Description. 1. Sc degree program in Environmental Biology Matthew Oluwasegun Adeboye: Disinfection of Escherichia coli in Water Using Ultraviolet– Cleaning and disinfection in FDM industries Methods of cleaning The following is the typical procedure used when cleaning food processing equipment. dry heat. sanitizing 4 heat 4 chemical sanitizers 5 factors affecting sanitizing 7 iii. They are efficacious, safe, and efficient approaches to the manufacture of sterile product. 8:15 AM Dr. The typical bands are 915 25 MHz and 2450 50 MHz with penetration depths rang-ing from 8 to 22 cm at 915 MHz and 3–8 cm at Selection and Use of Disinfectants Hypochlorites can eliminate both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses if used in correct dilution and contact time. Earl Spaulding developed a classification system to determine what type of disinfection or sterilization process is appropriate for medical devices. 3. For example, since chemicals react faster at higher temperatures, warm disinfectants generally work better than cool ones. They are also is effective against fungi, bacteria, and algae but not spores. Factors Affecting High Level Disinfection and Sterilization Efficacy. However, if there is debris or bioburden in the lumen, the sterility of the device remains in question. Purpose of disinfection Types of disinfectants Disinfection kinetics Factors affecting disinfection. This involves an evaluation of the percentage of the chemical included in the incident. Fundamentals of Medical Device Reprocessing 1 Aims Good cleaning and disinfection are essential prerequisites for effective decontamination of instruments and other medical devices in a Reprocessing Unit for Medical Devices (RUMED). While most prevalent in the manufacture of sterile products it can be used in a variety Factors Affecting Sterilization or Disinfection AMOUNT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Number of microorganisms Type of microorganisms (resistance levels) Type of germicidal agent Concentration of germicidal agent Exp osu r etim gcdal n Temperature of exposure pH of solution Presence or absence of moisture Sterilization Instrument Factors August 2009 · Disinfection, Sterilization, and Antisepsis – APIC 2009 Preconference An Overview of Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Martin S. cleaning 2 types of cleaning compounds 2 properties of a cleaner 2 factors that affect cleaning efficiency 2 cleaning operation 3 ii. Factors affecting efficacy . The greater the phylogenetic distances between two species, the greater the structural (and therefore the antigenic) disparity between them. The four processes are: (1) Preliminary Treatment (2) Primary Treatment (3) Secondary or Biological Treatment and (4) Tertiary or Advanced Treatment. Sterilization And Disinfection 217548 PPT. Shyamal Kr Paul, Streilization Disinfection and Sterilization Concepts and Techniques on Durham College. e. Disinfection lecture outline Purpose of disinfection Types of disinfectants Disinfection kinetics Factors affecting disinfection History of disinfection History of – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. Disinfectants are substances that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. Factors Contributing to Failure Normal disinfection level = 200- 800 ppm Abstract: Although there is considerable literature about sterilization methods and equipment, there is very little written about the impact of sterilization on electronics. factors affecting death rate. Uses: a. Factors affecting its efficiency are: - Initial number of microorganisms - type of microorganism - composition and pore size of the filter 13. The most common types of disinfection in health care settings is done by liquid chemicals or wet pasteurization. KAHRS * Summary: Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces which have been in contact with animals, poultry or organic material is a vital element in controlling bacterial and viral diseases, and ensuring the wholesomeness and safety of foods. This chapter examines a range of issues affecting DBP formation and control to provide guidance to utilities considering the use of various disinfecting chemicals to achieve microbial inactivation with DBP control. Emphasis given to sterilization and disinfection of medical items and microbiological media. While disinfection measures may be employed in food processing and preparation, it is much more common to utilize sanitization methods to ----- Note on the Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual, June 2003 Draft Purpose: The purpose of this guidance manual, when finalized, is solely to provide technical information on the application of ultraviolet light for the disinfection of drinking water by public water systems. In food processing operations soils and deposits originate from the ingredients used in the prepa-ration of the product. An important distinction between sterilization and disinfection is that sterilization is not sporicidal. In 1968, Dr. Cleaning* — Failure to adequately clean instrument results in higher bioburden, protein load, and salt concentration Primary and secondary defense mechanisms necessary to maintain homeostasis and responses to real or perceived injury or infection, including the physical and psychological aspects of self-preservation, through coordination efforts of the intact immune, skin, hepatic, hematologic, and renal systems. Sterilization of Reusable Surgical Instruments and Medical Devices . the disinfection To sanitize means to reduce microorganisms of public health importance to levels considered safe, based on established parameters, without adversely affecting either the quality of the product or its safety. The environmental conditions under which the antimicrobial agent is used, such as temperature and pH. Suspended solids inhibit disinfection because they can shield organisms from the UV radiation. Publications have highlighted concerns about the potential for biological terrorism 306, 307. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially nonresistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilisation, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life. " Factors of Importance in the Use of Triethylene Glycol Vapor for Aerial  Awareness of these factors should lead to better use of disinfection and sterilization processes and will be briefly reviewed. factors affecting sterilization and disinfection ppt